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Allergic rhinitis and its impact on airways disease

02 April 2022
10 min read
Volume 33 · Issue 4

Abstract

Allergic rhinitis is linked to an increased risk of asthma development. Laia Castro Salvador et al discuss the impact of allergic rhinitis and how it can be managed

Allergic rhinitis is characterised by symptoms including rhinorrhoea, sneezing, nasal obstruction and itching, which have a great impact on the patient's quality of life. Allergic rhinitis can be classified depending on the frequency and severity of symptoms, and can be sub-divided into seasonal and perennial. Allergic rhinitis is linked to an increased risk of asthma development and both diseases are believed to be different expressions of the same inflammatory process. The aim of the treatment is improving the patient's quality of life by relieving symptoms. Management of allergic rhinitis will encompass a combination of allergen avoidance, pharmacological therapies and patient education and adherence.

Allergic rhinitis is described as an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated inflammatory disorder of the nasal mucosa triggered by exposure to an allergen (Bousquet et al, 2008). It is characterised by symptoms including rhinorrhoea, sneezing, nasal obstruction and itching, which have a great impact on the patient's quality of life (Scadding et al, 2017). It is a global health problem that causes major disease and disability affecting work or school performance, social life and sleep (Bousquet et al, 2008).

Rhinitis affects 26% of adults and 10–15% of children in the UK, reaching its peak prevalence in adults aged between 30–40 years old and showing remission throughout adult life. In the UK and Western Europe, there has been a remarkable increase in the prevalence over the last four to five decades. Globally, there seems to be an association between economic and industrial development and the occurrence of allergic rhinitis (Scadding et al, 2017).

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