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Adams RN, Athinarayanan SJ, McKenzie AL Depressive symptoms improve over 2 years of type 2 diabetes treatment via a digital continuous remote care intervention focused on carbohydrate restriction. J Behav Med. 2022; https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00272-4

Athinarayanan SJ, Adams RN, Hallberg SJ Long-term effects of a novel continuous remote care intervention including nutritional ketosis for the management of type 2 diabetes: A 2-year non-randomized clinical trial. Front Endocrinol. 2019; 10 https://doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2019.00348

Hallberg SJ, Gershuni VM, Hazbun TL, Athinarayanan SJ. Reversing Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review of the Evidence. Nutrients. 2019; 11 https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11040766

Mantantzis K, Schlaghecken F, Sünram-Lea SI, Maylor EA. Sugar rush or sugar crash? A meta-analysis of carbohydrate effects on mood. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019; 101:45-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.03.016

Parliament of Western Australia. THE FOOD FIX: The role of diet in type 2 diabetes prevention and management. 2019. http://www.parliament.wa.gov.au/Parliament/commit.nsf/(Report+Lookup+by+Com+ID)/E65D9AAEA62B2B2C482583D800295552/$file/EHSC%20Report%206%20The%20Food%20Fix%20FINAL.pdf (accessed 28 April 2022)

Unwin DJ, Tobin SD, Murray SW Substantial and Sustained Improvements in Blood Pressure, Weight and Lipid Profiles from a Carbohydrate Restricted Diet: An Observational Study of Insulin Resistant Patients in Primary Care. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019; 16 https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16152680

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Type 2 diabetes and depression: what is the link?

02 May 2022
4 min read
Volume 33 · Issue 5

Abstract

George Winter explores the link between type 2 diabetes and depression and the suggestion that diet can play a role

Around one million people in the UK have undiagnosed type 2 diabetes (T2D); 42% of people with T2D do not receive annual health checks; and the NHS spends at least £10 billion annually on diabetes – equivalent to 10% of its budget – with 80% spent on treating complications (Whicher et al, 2019). However, as the Parliament of Western Australia (2019) reports, T2D ‘can go into remission and it need not be a life-long progressive chronic illness. Some practitioners argue it is reversible.’ Such reversal can be attained through low-carbohydrate or carbohydrate restricted diets. Thus, Hallberg et al (2019), for example, note that before insulin's discovery in 1921 low-carbohydrate diets were commonly prescribed for diabetes, and low-carbohydrate diets can reduce reliance on anti-glycaemic medications like insulin while conferring improvements in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, inflammation and cardiovascular risk factors (Athinarayanan et al, 2019; Unwin et al, 2019).

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